Men’s Boots – Hessians, Wellingtons, Bluchers, and Ankle-Jacks

George III in 1762, Courtesy of Wikipedia
George III in 1762, Courtesy of Wikipedia

Boots have been worn by men for years because they are hard-wearing and long-lasting. During medieval times, riding boots started to be used in heraldry. In the nineteenth century, because boots generally had a bootstrap (a loop at the top on either side), the saying developed “pull yourself up by your bootstraps,” meaning a person could succeed because of his or her own efforts or perform a difficult task with outside help or aid. Early in the reign of George III, the close-fitting gentleman’s boot became common. Between the late 1700 and 1800s, popular boots were the Hessian, Wellington, Blucher, and ankle-jack. Most of these boots were created from “grain leather, the flesh side being left brown and the grain blackened … [and] in currying this sort of leather … it went through an ingenious process of contraction, to give it life; so that the heel of the wearer might go into it and come out … easier … [and it caught] snugly round the small of the leg, in a sort of stocking fit.”

Hessian Boots, Courtesy of Wikipedia
Hessian Boots, Courtesy of Wikipedia

The Hessian boot was the most popular boot during George III’s time. It was first introduced in about 1789. It began as standard military issue footwear but soon became popular with civilians and was sometimes called an “Austrian” having been first introduced in Germany. When it came into fashion some people thought it “odious, as the close boot was then in wear, but like many fashions, at first frightful, it was then pitied, and at last adopted.” Hessians were worn with tight-fitting pantaloons or breeches, with the “up-peaking front bearing a silk tassel.” The Hessians were also low-heeled with semi-pointed toes and hit below the knee. One description of these boots claimed they were “curved at the top — wrinkled at the bottom (showing symptoms of super-annuation even in their infancy), and betasselled [sic] in the front, offering what a Wellington [boot] never did—a weak point for an enemy to seize and shake at his pleasure.”

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in his Wellington Boots, Courtesy of Wikipedia
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in his Wellington Boots, Courtesy of Wikipedia

Wellington boots were a hard-wearing mid-calf boots based upon the Hessian style and modified by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, from whom they took their name. Wellington wanted boots to be worn with the new fashionable trousers of the time, and his boots proved so comfortable, they were quickly adopted and worn by the British aristocracy. In fact, dandies, such as “Beau” Brummell, worn these foppish boots regularly.

The new tasseled boots were created from “the most judicious species of manufactured calf-skin,” cut to fit the leg closely, and sported a low-cut, one-inch stacked heel. They were described as being “perfect as a whole; from the binding at the top to the finish at the toe, there is a beautiful unity about their well-conceived proportions: kindly considerate of the calf, amiably inclined to the instep, and devotedly serviceable to the whole foot, they shed their protecting influence over all they encase. They are walked about in not only as protectors of the feet, but of the honour of the wearer.”

Blucher Boots, Author's Collection
Blucher Boots, Author’s Collection

Wellington boots, also sometimes called a gumboot, rubber boot, top boot, willy, or wellie, became popular in the early 1800s and remained so throughout the 1840s. Because servicemen were often wounded in the knee, Wellington eventually modified the boot to cover the knee. But “in the 1850s they were more commonly made in the calf-high version, and, in the 1860s, [both styles were] … superseded by the ankle boot, except for riding.”

Prussian General Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher commissioned a stout boot for his troops, and they became adopted by armies throughout Europe. They had six lace holes and side pieces that lapped over the front. Not everyone liked the boots. One person described them as “churlish,’ loose-fitting, awkward” and others thought them down right “ugly commodities … [and] eight-and-six-pennyworth of discomfort!” Beside being considered loose-fitting, uncomfortable, and ugly, some people thought they were “shocking imposters — walking discomforts!” and claimed that the boots “had no right to be made at all; or, if made, t’was a sin for them to be so christened … They are Wellingtons cut down; so, in point of genius, was their baptismal sponsor: but these are vilely tied … they are ambulating humbugs, and the would-be respectables that wear ’em are a huge fraternity of ‘false pretenders.'”

Ankle-Jacks, Public Domain
Ankle-Jacks, Public Domain

Ankle-jacks may have been less appreciated than the ugly Bluchers. These were short, sporting boots, that stopped at the ankle and had five lace-up eyelets on either side. They were popular between the 1840s and the 1870s. One person wrote of these lace-up boots that they

[T]hrive chiefly in the neighbourhoods of  Houndsditch, Whitechapel, and Billingsgate. They attach[ed] themselves principally to butchers’ boys, Israelitish disposers … itinerant misnomers of ‘live fish.’ … Their term of servitude varies from three to six weeks: during the first they are fastened to the topmost of their ten holes; the next fortnight, owning to the breaking of the lace, and its frequent knotting, they are shorn of half their glories, and upon the total destruction of the thong (a thing never replaced), it appears a matter of courtesy on their parts to remain on at all. On some occasions various…wearers have transferred them as a legacy to very considerable mobs, without particularly stating for which … individual they were intended.

Although some people thought that any boot or shoe “interfered with the beauty of the human foot,” one writer decided that was not the case. He stated:

The best coverings for the feet are boots, not only do they look neat and tidy, but the general and gradual support they give all over the feet and ankles induces strength, and gives tone to the veins and muscles — shoes on the contrary, and especially long quartered ones, require a great effort from the muscles to be kept on, and this when long applied tires and weakens.

However, he did not like boots that laced or buttoned because of “the trouble … of lacing and unlacing, … the button breaking, or the shank hurting … and many other little annoyances.” In the 1700s, most boots were made from leather and then later rubber, but, today, boots are manufactured from a variety of materials and are regularly worn by both women and men, and that includes the Wellington, which still remains popular today.


  • Carlyle, Thomas, Fraser’s Magazine, Vol. 63, 1861
  • Hall, Joseph Sparkes, The Book of the Feet, 1847
  • Hardy, Thomas, Far From the Maddening Crowd, 1874
  • Hessian Boot
  • Munsey’s Magazine, Vol. 9, 1893
  • Punch, Vol., 1841

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