Buildings and Landmarks

James Lackington Revolutionized the Book Trade

James Lackington revolutionized the book trade because of his innovative book-selling practices. He was born in on 31 August 1746 in Wellington, Somerset to a shoemaker and was one of eleven children. His father had some money and young Lackington was lucky enough to attend a “Dame School,” but it lasted only a short time…

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What are Wash-houses and Laundry-Related Rooms?

Because eighteenth and nineteenth century houses generated lots of laundry, laundry facilities were an important part of any home. Sometimes laundry facilities were completely separate from a house and located near the Stables, but it was a chore to move the entire laundry of household to an area far from the house. One reason laundry…

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What are Under-Servant Offices?

Under-servants, sometimes called lower-servants, performed the duties under the direction of upper-servants. Under-servants included scullery maids, kitchen maids, cooks, footmen, housemaids, and grooms. Special rooms designated for use by under-servants  included such rooms as the Cleaning rooms, Housemaid’s Closets, and Servants’ Halls. Cleaning-rooms: These rooms were used for specific types of cleaning. In large houses…

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What are State-Rooms?

In the 1700s, State-rooms were generally found in large European mansions or palaces. Admittance into these rooms was considered a privilege, and the further a person penetrated, the greater the honor. State-rooms also implied one of a suite of very grand rooms that were designed to impress guests, but at the same time State-rooms did…

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What are Upper-Servant Offices?

Status was just as important among servants as it was within aristocratic ranks. Upper-servants supervised under-servants (sometimes called lower servants) and under-servants deferred to upper-servants. Upper-servants included the house steward, butler, valet, head housekeeper, head nurse, and lady’s maid. Upper-servants also enjoyed privileges that under-servants did not, and, in order for upper-servants to perform their…

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What are Supplementary Rooms?

Houses of the eighteenth and nineteenth century had a variety of different rooms that functioned in different ways. One important categories was supplementary rooms. Supplementary Rooms were additional rooms sometimes connected or attached to other rooms. Supplementary Rooms included such rooms as cloak-rooms, lavatories, bathrooms, plunge or swimming baths, service-rooms, and water-closets.

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What are House Thoroughfares?

Thoroughfares were the routes or entrances used to access a house or various rooms inside a house. Thoroughfares also sometimes functioned as secondary rooms, but their main purpose was to accommodate traffic flow inside the house and allow entrance and egress to the house. Areas considered thoroughfares were Ante-rooms, Entrance Halls, Garden Entrances, Lobbies, Luggage…

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Dorton Spa (Chalybeate Spa) and Its Healthy Waters

The Dorton Spa, sometimes called the Chalybeate Spa or Chalybeate Springs, was located in Dorton, Buckinghamshire, about twelve miles east of Oxford. It came into being after rumors circulated about the health benefits of the springs and the miraculous cures supposedly affected from bathing or drinking the water. The claims began hundreds of years ago…

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Kensal Green Cemetery

From the beginning of the 1800s, public attention was drawn to the problems associated with cemeteries and their overcrowding in the midst of London. For instance, one article published in a nineteenth century magazine stated: “Public attention in London has long been directed to the dangers of burying-grounds in the midst of the city. These…

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