Luigi Lablache was a famous bass singer born in Naples on 6 December 1791. His father, Nicola Lablache, was a merchant from Marseilles and his mother an Irish woman named Franziska Bietak. Lablache displayed an unusual inclination for music at an early and captured the notice of Joseph Napoleon, who took an interest in the 12-year-old after Lablache’s father became a victim of the French Revolution.
Because of Lablache’s talents, Napoleon also procured a place for him at the Conservatorio della pieta de’ Turchini in Naples. However, Lablache was interested in the stage and decided that he didn’t want to devote himself solely to music. This resulted in him run away five times from the Conservatory and gaining employment at local theatres. Because of Lablache’s antics a royal law was issued that put an end to Lablache’s escape. The royal law stated:
“[A]ny theatre director … who should engage, without the express permission of the government, a pupil of the Conservatory, should pay a fine of 2000 ducats, and … [have] his theatre [closed] for a fortnight.”
At the age of eighteen, Lablache graduated from the Conservatory. He immediately found employment at the theatre San Carlino in the comedic role of “Buffo Napolitano.” Five months later, Lablache married the daughter of the celebrated actor named Pinotti. His wife then procured the same role of “Buffo Napolitano” for him at Messina. Soon after, she found him employment as a singer at the theatre of Palermo. Palmermo is where he made his debut in Stefano Pavesi’s Ser Marcantonio.
Lablache remained at the Palermo theatre for five years before he left for Milan. In Milan, he appeared as “Dandini” in Gioachino Rossini’s Cenerentola. It was here also that the Italian composer, Saverio Mercadante, wrote his opera, Elisa e Claudio for Lablache, which became a huge success partly because Lablache was said to be extraordinary not only in his voice but also in his style of performance.
After seven years at Milan, Lablache decided to widen his horizons and his fame. This caused him to travel. He went first to Turin and sang in Ferdinando Paer’s Agnese and played the role of “Uberto.” He received great applause as Uberto because that role was said to be extremely difficult. He next went to Naples, then to Venice, and, in 1824, he appeared in Vienna. In Vienna, he filled the roles of “Figaro,” “Assure,” “Geronimo,” and “Umberto.” He also enraptured the audiences to such a degree that a medal was coined for him that bore an inscription by the Marchese of Gargallo and read:
“Actione Roscio, I ope cantu comparandus, utraque lauru conserta ambobus major.“
As an artist, Lablache was unrivaled and most people considered him the most famous bass of his generation. His full, pure, and powerful voice was said to be among the most sonorous ever heard and he enraptured audiences when he sang. His style of performance was also declared “truly artistic,” and he was lauded for his versatility. When it came to his acting, he was also said to be equally good in serious or comedic roles. Yet, for all the acclamation there was one area where he may have improved: It seems that over the years he went from a noble, truly handsome, and imposing figure to a man of “stoutness.”
Despite his stoutness, many people still admired Lablache for his character. He was said to be a “true gentleman,” and his personal characteristics were regularly lauded. He was reported by many people to be “modest, frank, generous, benevolent, and an amiable husband and father.” Because of his skills and virtuous character, he had many wonderful experiences: a private audience with Ferdinand I, King of Naples; he was one of the thirty-two torchbearers who surrounded Beethoven’s coffin in 1827 and he also sang Mozart’s Requiem at the funeral; and, finally, he was singing teacher to Queen Victorian giving her twenty-six lessons.
Lablache’s health began to fail by 1856. The following spring, he took healing waters from the spa town of Bad Kissingen in Bavaria, Germany. While there he met and was honored by Alexander II of Russia with medals. Lablache responded to Alexander II’s medals with, “These will do to ornament my coffin.” Lablache had previously purchased a house near Paris in Maison-Lafitte. He returned to that home for a short time but then went to Naples hoping to improve his health as it had been precarious for months. “A month before his death he had a violent attack of his malady … [and] after suffering excruciating agony with great fortitude and calmness,” he died on 23 January 1858. His remains were taken to Paris, and he was buried at Maison-Lafitte, located in the north-western suburbs of Paris.
- Grove, Sir George, etal., Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1906
- “Health of Lablache,” in Globe, 28 January 1858
- Moore, John Weeks, Complete Encyclopaedia of Music, 1854
- Stephen, Sir Leslie, DNB, 1892
- The Letters of Queen Victoria, Vol. 1, 1907