Henri de Bysterveld was a French hairdresser and editor of the Gazette of Hair who created various hairstyles with bonnets in 1864. Bysterveld also published several books and elevated hairdressing to an art form with his creations. His hairstyles often relied on Greek or Roman styles and were also inspired from Henry IV to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette‘s time. Bysterveld also often used ornamentation, such as feathers, flowers, or jewels, and it was claimed he was a magician when it came to hair, as he offered innumerable ways to arrange a woman’s hair appropriate to her face and complexion.
Among Bysterveld’s hairstyles with bonnets was what he called the Apartment Headdress that he claimed was “equally suitable for a brown or fair complexion and for every age, when the physiognomy allows it.” It was achieved by separating the hair from the forehead so as to form a “Mary Stuard without separation.” Behind the catogan, a chignon was formed with a fork comb that was fixed to a piece of hair and turned before being locked firmly into place. A fanchon, which was French for kerchief, was placed over the head.
Bysterveld’s next hairstyle relied on what was known as the Moldave headdress. Bysterveld felt that this style was best “suited for disguise … [as it was a] true historical type of Moldavia.” To achieve the look, the hair was separated into two equal parts starting from the forehead down to the nape of the neck and braided with the braids placed behind the ears. To ornament the look Bysterveld used a red satin cap highlighted with jewelry and add a red bow just above the ear.
Another of the hairstyles with bonnets was the Bonnet Headdress. It was said to be a “charming head-dress agreeing very well with a fair complexion … very much likeness with the style of the … [restoration but] modernised.” To achieve this look Bysterveld relied on what he called the “Civic Headdress.” The entire front used that style, which he suggested could be achieved with a false hair piece. At the rear of the head, he achieved his ever popular catagon with large loose curls. He then ornamented the coiffure with a red velvet bonnet, a large feather plume, and a diamond clasp.
The Italian hairstyle was also noted by Bysterveld to be “a graceful head-dress of disguise … [and a] Italian national head-dress.” Bysterveld, however, claimed that this style could be worn at other times if it was worn “without any ornament or [if it was] decked with a garland of flowers.” The execution of this style began with a part down the center of the head, and another part behind the ear that traversed from one ear to the other. These parts were formed into two braids to which were added “a pair of berthes.” Then the braids were secured behind the ears and covered with plaits. To ornament the style, ribbon was used at each corner above the ear, a golden comb was added, and the entire coiffure was topped off with what was known as “drapery.”
Another of the hairstyles with bonnets was the Stuart Bonnet (known as the Dutheis bonnet, although later more popularly known as the Marie Stuart bonnet) is shown below. Bysterveld called it “one of the most exquisite fashions … a very artistick [sic] stamp.” Bysterveld was so enamored with this bonnet that he begged its creator, M. Dutheis, to allow him to compose a headdress to accompany it. The execution of this hairstyle included false curls on the forehead and temples. “Corkscrew” curls were then achieved by crimping, rolling them stranded by strand, and arranging and mounting the corkscrews atop the head under what was called a “Steward roll.” Atop this creation Bysterveld placed Dutheis’s Stuart bonnet.
The Dutheis Bonnet (also created by M. Dutheis) is identical to the preceding bonnet that Bysterveld claimed was a “true head-dress bonnet.” Bysterveld liked the bonnet so much he created two different headdresses to go with it. This bonnet was claimed to be especially popular with widows, usually made of satin, trimmed with lace and ribbons, and often tied in a large bow under the chin. Bysterveld asserted that this headdress had “gracefulness [and] is most suitable for a fair complexion.” To achieve this look, either false hair or hair cut short at the front was used. The hair was formed into curls in the Marie Stuart fashion and, the bonnet that so famously dipped in the front, placed atop it.
The Magician, as it was called, was another new style for 1864. According to Bysterveld, the hairstyle “suits for disguise and can equally be worn at a decked ball … [by] changing … ornaments.” There was not necessarily a bonnet involved in this style but rather what was called a magician diadem or crown. The hair was separated in 8 centimeters increments (which is about 3 inches) from the front of the forehead. The diadem or crown was then placed and each increment, which had been slightly curled, brought up and over the diadem or crown towards the rear of the head. As you can see it separated the hair, yet firmly combined the diadem within the hairstyle. The hair piled behind the diadem was then arranged in curls. Although some of the curls were placed around the top of the head, the majority were gathered and pulled to the rear, where they were firmly secured with a comb.
The Star was another of the hairstyles with bonnets that relied on a diadem or crown. Similar to the Magician above, this style was suggested for “a decked ball or rather for a disguise … suit[ing] a dark or fair complexion.” To execute the style, the hair was separated at the temples and the front rolled in small curls. A star diadem or crown (and either of gold or diamonds) was placed in front of the small curls at the forehead. The remainder of the hair was raised up and secured in place. At the rear of the head, a chignon of curls was secured in placed, and then tulle drapery was added as shown in the engraving.
- Henri de Bysterveld, Album de Coiffures Historiques, (Paris), 1864
- Lacroix, A., Paris Guide 1867